India’s displaced mothers due to Industrialisaton: A photo essay

In No Man’s Land: A young mother at Little Rann of Kutch, a salt marsh where many workers are employed to pan for salt. She is a seasonal migrant who has come from a nearby village.(photo courtesy: PATTABI RAMAN)

WORKING MOTHERS IN RURAL INDIA

PATTABI RAMAN

As India‘s urban population has exceeded the rural population for the first time in history, I decided to work on a long-term photography project on Rural India. This photo series, Working Mothers in Rural India, is a portrayal of women in rural India who fulfill the dual roles of mother and financial breadwinner for their family.

Overall, rural Indian women make up 22.7% of the labor force. Amidst great levels of industrialization and growth, the rural sectors of India suffer neglect. Agriculture is the primary source of livelihood for the rural population—in fact, nearly 90 percent of women working in rural India do so in the agriculture or allied industrial sectors. Despite the fact that many women are the primary breadwinners, a woman’s daily wages average just half as much as a man’s, though men and women work equal hours.

Many working women in rural India have tremendous workloads, as they are responsible for farm or agricultural as well as household production.

Pattabi Raman’s photo essay on working mothers in parts of rural India illuminates the challenges and struggles many working mothers around the world face, and highlights issues that are specific to women in parts of rural India, such as the threat of displacement due to industrialization.

View the full photo essay by Pattabi Raman: WORKING MOTHERS IN RURAL INDIA

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“masses lost touch with Kannada literature b’cos of English media”- Jogi

English media along with social networking sites like Facebook have played a big role in detaching people from the world of Kannada literature, said Jogi, litterateur and magazine editor of ‘Udayavani’.He was speaking after inaugurating the 8th University level ‘Vidyarthi  Sahitya Sammelana’, a literary meet for students organised by Mangalore University post graduate alumni association at University College, Mangalore, on Saturday.

Stating that although Kannada newspapers and magazines had been acting as a bridge between Kannada literature and the masses, people, especially in the urban areas, lost touch with Kannada literature with the advent of Englih media. “The English newspapers encourage consumerism and hardly focus on literature”, he opined.

Mr. Jogi said that it is also noteworthy that most prominent writers and literary figures hail from rural areas. “People in the rural areas are the ones who have firm interest in literature and that is why we find people from these areas shine in the field of literature”, he said.

Advising students to look for contentment in their literary works, Mr. Jogi said “One should focus on getting satisfaction even if five to six people read his work rather than aiming of becoming an overnight literary star with thousands of readers as his fan following”.

Advocating that one should make a deep study of literature, Mr. Jogi said that students must not pick their priorities on the basis of few readings. “If you say Tejaswi is your favourite writer, you must know all his works, his thinking, his philosophy…you must know that author through and through by reading all his works. Literature is as tough as medical science where you have to study the intricacies in detail”, he said.

Mr. Jogi also said that students must never complain of not finding topics to write on. “Not finding a topic is not a trait of a writer. There are hundreds of topics around us. Numerous incidents take place around us which we can convert into stories and be a story-teller.  Don’t we all use “Yen Kathe maraaya? (So what’s the story?), here in Dakshina Kannada? Real life incidents are potential story-telling topics”, he sai